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. 2016 Jan 2;6(1):6.
doi: 10.3390/nano6010006.

Effects of Thickness and Amount of Carbon Nanofiber Coated Carbon Fiber on Improving the Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposites

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Free PMC article

Effects of Thickness and Amount of Carbon Nanofiber Coated Carbon Fiber on Improving the Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposites

Ferial Ghaemi et al. Nanomaterials (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

In the current study, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were grown on a carbon fiber (CF) surface by using the chemical vapor deposition method (CVD) and the influences of some parameters of the CVD method on improving the mechanical properties of a polypropylene (PP) composite were investigated. To obtain an optimum surface area, thickness, and yield of the CNFs, the parameters of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, such as catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, and hydrocarbon flow rate, were optimized. It was observed that the optimal surface area, thickness, and yield of the CNFs caused more adhesion of the fibers with the PP matrix, which enhanced the composite properties. Besides this, the effectiveness of reinforcement of fillers was fitted with a mathematical model obtaining good agreement between the experimental result and the theoretical prediction. By applying scanning electronic microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy, the surface morphology and structural information of the resultant CF-CNF were analyzed. Additionally, SEM images and a mechanical test of the composite with a proper layer of CNFs on the CF revealed not only a compactness effect but also the thickness and surface area roles of the CNF layers in improving the mechanical properties of the composites.

Keywords: carbon fiber; carbon nanofiber; chemical vapor deposition; mathematical model; mechanical properties; polypropylene composite.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
(a) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image; (b) Raman spectroscopy of pristine carbon fiber.
Figure 2
Figure 2
SEM images and Raman spectra of different agglomerations of grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on carbon fiber (CF) at (a) 50 mM, (b) 100 mM, and (c) 150 mM catalyst concentrations at 550 °C for 30 min run time under 50 sccm acetylene flow rate.
Figure 3
Figure 3
SEM images and Raman spectra of grown CNF by use of 100 mM catalyst concentration for 30 min under 50 sccm acetylene flow rate at (a) 450 °C, (b) 550 °C, and (c) 650 °C.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Themogravimetric analysis (TGA) analysis of (a) neat CF and CF-CNF at (b) 450 °C, (c) 550 °C, and (d) 650 °C.
Figure 5
Figure 5
SEM images and Raman Spectrum of CNF morphologies at (a) 10 min, (b) 30 min, and (c) 50 min using 100 mM acid concentration at 550 °C under 50 sccm acetylene flow rate.
Figure 6
Figure 6
SEM images and Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanofiber on CF by use of 100 mM catalyst concentration at 550 °C for 30 min at (a) 25 sccm, (b) 50 sccm, and (c) 100 sccm flow rate of C2H2.
Figure 7
Figure 7
(a) SEM and (b) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs of optimum CNF.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Effective reinforcement modulus of different fillers in polypropylene matrix (dark purple states minimum amount and light purple reveals maximum amount).
Figure 9
Figure 9
SEM micrographs of fractured surface of (a) CF-CNFL/PP, (b) CF-CNFM/PP, and (c) CF-CNFH/PP composites.

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