Many forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD) can progress to extensive fibrosis and respiratory failure. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), which generally has a poor prognosis, has been thoroughly studied over the past two decades, and many important discoveries have been made that pertain to genetic predisposition, epidemiology, disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. Additionally, non-IPF forms of ILD can have radiologic and histopathologic manifestations that mimic IPF, and making an accurate diagnosis is key to providing personalized medicine to patients with pulmonary fibrosis. Areas covered: This manuscript discusses current knowledge pertaining to the genetics, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis with an emphasis on IPF. The material upon which this discussion is based was obtained from various published texts and manuscripts identified via literature searching (e.g. PubMed). Expert commentary: Many genetic variants have been identified that are associated with risk of developing pulmonary fibrosis, and an improved understanding of the influence of both genomic and epigenomic factors in the development of pulmonary fibrosis is rapidly evolving. Because many forms of fibrosing ILD can have similar radiologic and histopathologic patterns yet have different responses to therapeutic interventions, making an accurate diagnosis of specific forms of pulmonary fibrosis is increasingly important.
Keywords: Pulmonary fibrosis; diagnosis; idiopathic interstitial pneumonia; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; interstitial lung disease; treatment; usual interstitial pneumonia.