The Pregnancy Microbiome

Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2017;88:1-9. doi: 10.1159/000455207. Epub 2017 Mar 27.


In recent years, microbiome research has revealed multiple essential roles of the microorganisms residing within the human body in host metabolism, immunity, and overall health. Numerous physiological and pathological states, including obesity and the metabolic syndrome, have been correlated with microbial changes, termed dysbiosis. Our microbiomes change in response to our environment, diet, weight, hormones, and other factors. It is, therefore, not surprising that there are also significant changes in the microbiome during pregnancy when dramatic weight gain and metabolic and immunological changes occur. In this review, we summarize the known changes in microbial composition throughout pregnancy at a variety of body sites, including the gut, vagina, oral cavity, and placenta, and we describe several studies that have linked pregnancy complications with microbial changes. Unlike the case of certain disease states, such as obesity, where dysbiosis is considered to have negative effects, we believe that the microbial alterations observed during pregnancy are vital for a healthy pregnancy. While more research in this field is required to reveal specific mechanisms and pathways regulating these alterations, the microbial changes during pregnancy are likely coordinated with the immune, endocrine, and metabolic states.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diet
  • Dysbiosis / complications
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome / physiology
  • Humans
  • Immunity
  • Microbiota / immunology
  • Microbiota / physiology*
  • Mouth / microbiology
  • Placenta / microbiology
  • Pregnancy / physiology*
  • Pregnancy Complications / microbiology
  • Vagina / microbiology
  • Weight Gain