Prognostic Value of Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Biomarkers for Prediction of 90-Day All-Cause Mortality after Acute Ischemic Stroke-Results from the Linz Stroke Unit Study

Clin Chem. 2017 Jun;63(6):1101-1109. doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2016.269969. Epub 2017 Mar 27.


Background: Early outcome prediction after acute ischemic stroke is of great interest. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of blood biomarkers in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

Methods: We measured interleukin-6 (IL-6), d-dimer, amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, and soluble ST2 plasma concentrations within 24 h after admission to our stroke unit in 721 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients. End point was 90-day all-cause mortality.

Results: During follow-up 81 patients died (11%). In univariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses with the biochemical markers dichotomized according to median values, all baseline blood biomarkers were strong prognostic markers. However, in the multivariate analysis after adjustment for several clinical variables and the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), only NIHSS >3 [risk ratio (RR) 7.87, 95% CI, 3.61-17.16; P < 0.001], IL-6 > 7 pg/mL (RR 4.09, 95% CI, 2.02-8.29; P < 0.001), and NT-proBNP >447 ng/L (RR 4.88, 95% CI, 2.41-9.88; P < 0.001) remained independent predictors. Using a simple multimarker approach combining these 3 complementary markers, we demonstrated that patients with increased NIHSS, IL-6, and NT-proBNP had the poorest outcome with a mortality rate of 38%, whereas no patient with negative readings for all 3 markers died during follow-up.

Conclusions: In this large cohort of patients with acute ischemic stroke, IL-6 and NT-proBNP at admission were strong and independent prognostic markers for 90-day all-cause mortality, and provided complementary prognostic information to the routinely used stroke severity score NIHSS.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Brain Ischemia / blood
  • Brain Ischemia / complications*
  • Brain Ischemia / diagnosis*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / complications
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Cause of Death*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / blood
  • Inflammation / complications
  • Inflammation / diagnosis*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Stroke / blood
  • Stroke / complications*
  • Stroke / diagnosis*
  • Survival Analysis


  • Biomarkers