Background: Long-term outcomes of kidney transplantation recipients with percutaneous ureteral management of transplant ureteral complications are not well characterized.
Methods: Electronic records of 1753 recipients of kidney-alone transplant between January 2000 and December 2008 were reviewed. One hundred thirty-one patients were identified to have undergone percutaneous ureteral management, with placement of percutaneous nephrostomy tube or additional intervention (nephroureteral stenting and/or balloon dilation). Indications for intervention included transplant ureteral stricture or ureteral leak. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and multivariable regression modeling were performed to determine survival outcomes.
Results: Kaplan- Meier graft survival (P = 0.04) was lower in patients with percutaneous ureteral intervention for transplant ureteral complication. Graft survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 94.3% 78.3%, and 59.1% for no intervention and 97.2%, 72.1%, and 36.2% for intervention cohort. Patient survival (P = 0.69) was similar between cohorts. Multivariate analysis demonstrated no association with graft failure (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-2.19; P = 0.53) or patient death (hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-1.41; P = 0.22) in intervention group. The major cause of graft failure was infection for percutaneous ureteral intervention group (20.4%) and chronic rejection for those without intervention (17.3%).
Conclusions: Kidney transplant recipients with percutaneous ureteral interventions for ureteral complications do not have a significant difference in graft and patient survival outcomes. Therefore, aggressive nonoperative management can be confidently pursued in the appropriate clinical setting.