Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of red and processed meat and refined grains are associated with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome and increased inflammatory and fibrinolytic markers. We hypothesised that a diet high in red and processed meat and refined grains (HMD) would increase inflammatory markers and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) compared with a diet high in dairy, whole grains, nuts and legumes (HWD). We performed a randomised crossover study of two four-week interventions in 51 participants without type 2 diabetes (15 men and 36 women aged 35.1 ± 15.6 years; body mass index: 27.7 ± 6.9 kg/m²). No baseline measurements were performed. Plasma fluorescent AGEs, carboxymethyllysine, glucose, insulin, lipids, hs-CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were analysed after four weeks on each diet. IL-6, hs-CRP, AGEs and carboxymethyllysine were not different between diets but PAI-1 was higher after the HMD than after HWD ((median and interquartile range) 158, 81 vs. 121, 53 ng/mL p < 0.001). PAI-1 on the HWD diet was inversely correlated with whole grains intake (p = 0.007). PAI-1 was inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity index (r = -0.45; p = 0.001) and positively correlated with serum total cholesterol (r = 0.35; p = 0.012) and serum triglyceride (r = 0.32; p = 0.021) on HMD. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12614000519651).
Keywords: advanced glycation products; dietary pattern; insulin sensitivity; plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1.