Cytomegalovirus Retinitis: A Review

J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2017 May;33(4):224-234. doi: 10.1089/jop.2016.0140. Epub 2017 Mar 29.


Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous DNA herpes virus that causes significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. CMV retinitis is a potentially blinding manifestation of CMV infection that was commonly seen in advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the era before modern combination antiretroviral therapy era, but is also recognized in patients with immune deficiency from multiple causes. The advent of and advances in antiretroviral therapies for human immunodeficiency virus have decreased the incidence of CMV retinitis by over 90% among AIDS patients, and improved visual outcomes in those affected. The diagnosis is generally a clinical one, and treatment modalities include systemic and intravitreal antiviral medications. Retinal detachment and immune recovery uveitis are sight-threatening complications of CMV retinitis that require specific treatments.

Keywords: cytomegalovirus; immune recovery uveitis; retinitis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology*
  • Cytomegalovirus / drug effects*
  • Cytomegalovirus Retinitis / diagnosis
  • Cytomegalovirus Retinitis / drug therapy*
  • Cytomegalovirus Retinitis / virology*
  • Humans


  • Antiviral Agents