Negative emotionality and discipline as long-term predictors of behavioral outcomes in African American and European American children

Dev Psychol. 2017 Jun;53(6):1013-1026. doi: 10.1037/dev0000306. Epub 2017 Mar 30.


The present study examined the early parenting and temperament determinants of children's antisocial and positive behaviors in a low-income, diverse ethno-racial sample. Participants were from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, which included 960 European American (initial M age = 15.00 months; 51.2% female) and 880 African American mothers and their children (initial M age = 15.10 months; 49.2% female) followed from 15 months of age to 5th grade. For European American children, findings showed direct and indirect effects (via self-regulation) of early negative emotionality on later behaviors. For African American children, discipline practices in infancy had direct long-term implications for behaviors in 5th grade. Discussion highlights the interplay of parenting, temperament, and culture from infancy to late childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • African Americans / psychology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Developmental Disabilities / psychology*
  • Emotions / physiology*
  • European Continental Ancestry Group / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Juvenile Delinquency / psychology
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Mother-Child Relations / psychology*
  • Poverty / psychology
  • Self-Control / psychology
  • Temperament