Graphene oxide nanosheets induced genotoxicity and pulmonary injury in mice

Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2017 Jul 5;69(6):383-392. doi: 10.1016/j.etp.2017.03.002. Epub 2017 Mar 28.


Graphene and graphene-related materials have broadly applied in biomedical purposes due to their unique properties, thus safety evaluation of them is crucial. This study was performed to explore the genotoxic and pulmonary toxic potential of different doses of graphene oxide nanosheets' (GOs) in mice.A total of 90 male mature mice were randomly divided into six groups of fifteen mice per each, five groups were intraperitoneally injected by GO at doses of 10, 50, 100, 250 and 500μg/kg b.w once weekly in addition to the control group that was injected intraperitoneally with 0.2ml saline solution. Five animals from each group were euthanized after 7, 28 and 56days post treatment. Evaluation of genotoxicity was performed through detection of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow while assessment of lung injury was made by determination of DNA fragmentation in lung specimens using the alkali Comet assay, pulmonary oxidative markers estimation and finally histopathological investigations. Results revealed that GOs induced variable structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA) in bone marrow and DNA damage of lung cells that were time and dose dependent and represented by increase in%DNA in comet tail, tail moment and tail length and decrease in% head DNA in nuclei of lung of GOs-treated mice versus control groups in addition, GOs induced various changes in pulmonary oxidative stress parameters that were affected by dose and duration of treatment compared with the control as well as various pulmonary histopathological alterations were detected indicating lung injury.

Conclusion: GO potentiate the induction of genotoxicity and pulmonary injury in mice in time and dose dependent manner.

Keywords: Genotoxicity; Graphene nanosheets; Lung; Mice; Pathology.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Marrow / drug effects*
  • Chromosome Aberrations / drug effects*
  • DNA Fragmentation / drug effects*
  • Graphite / toxicity*
  • Lung / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Nanostructures / toxicity
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Oxides / toxicity


  • Oxides
  • Graphite