A homologous transformation system for the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger has been developed, based on the orotidine-5'-phosphate-decarboxylase gene. A. niger Pyr- mutants have been selected from 5-fluoro-orotic acid resistant mutants. These mutants were found to comprise two complementation groups, pyrA and pyrB. The A. niger OMP-decarboxylase gene was isolated from a gene library by heterologous hybridization with the Neurospora crassa pyr4 gene. The cloned gene is capable to transform A. nidulans pyrG mutants at high frequencies. Transformation of A. niger pyrA mutants occurs with moderate frequencies (about 50 transformants/micrograms DNA) whereas the pyrB mutants cannot be complemented with the cloned OMP-decarboxylase gene. Analysis of the DNA of the A. niger PyrA+ transformants showed that transformation resulted in integration of the vector DNA into the genome by homologous recombination. Both gene replacements and integration of one or more copies of the complete vector have been observed.