Human Intestinal Enteroids: New Models to Study Gastrointestinal Virus Infections

Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1576:229-247. doi: 10.1007/7651_2017_1.


Human rotavirus (HRV) and human norovirus (HuNoV) infections are recognized as the most common causes of epidemic and sporadic cases of gastroenteritis worldwide. The study of these two human gastrointestinal viruses is important for understanding basic virus-host interactions and mechanisms of pathogenesis and to establish models to evaluate vaccines and treatments. Despite the introduction of live-attenuated vaccines to prevent life-threatening HRV-induced disease, the burden of HRV illness remains significant in low-income and less-industrialized countries, and small animal models or ex vivo models to study HRV infections efficiently are lacking. Similarly, HuNoVs remained non-cultivatable until recently. With the advent of non-transformed human intestinal enteroid (HIE) cultures, we are now able to culture and study both clinically relevant HRV and HuNoV in a biologically relevant human system. Methods described here will allow investigators to use these new culture techniques to grow HRV and HuNoV and analyze new aspects of virus replication and pathogenesis.

Keywords: Gastrointestinal viral infections; HIEs; Human intestinal enteroids; Human norovirus; Human rotavirus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Caliciviridae Infections / pathology
  • Caliciviridae Infections / virology*
  • Cell Culture Techniques / methods*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases / pathology
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases / virology*
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / virology
  • Humans
  • Intestines / pathology
  • Intestines / virology*
  • Norovirus / isolation & purification
  • Organoids / pathology
  • Organoids / virology*
  • Rotavirus / isolation & purification
  • Rotavirus Infections / pathology
  • Rotavirus Infections / virology*
  • Virus Replication*