The aim of this study was to assess the association between the TNFR1 rs2234649 polymorphism and ankylosing spondylitis susceptibility in a Russian Caucasian population. A total of 41 ankylosing spondylitis patients and 43 healthy controls, matched according to age and sex, were enrolled, and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to genotype the rs2234649 variant. We evaluated genotype distributions in the patient and control groups with the chi-square test, and assessed the relationship between genotypes and ankylosing spondylitis using the odds ratio. Our analysis showed that the rs2234649 polymorphism does not increase ankylosing spondylitis risk. In conclusion, the TNFR1 gene polymorphism tested does not appear to be useful for assessing predisposition to this disease or for its diagnosis or prognosis.