Although the majority of laryngeal malignancies are the conventional squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), a wide variety of malignant epithelial tumors can affect the larynx. Current treatment guidelines are designed to guide clinicians in management of conventional laryngeal SCC. Less is known about the biological behavior and responsiveness to therapy and overall outcomes of other malignant epithelial lesions. Because a spectrum of disease biology is represented by these rare phenotypes, an understanding of the basic biology can help direct management to optimize clinical outcome in this group of patients. This review provides a critical analysis of literature relating to the diagnosis, management, and outcome of patients with non-conventional squamous malignant epithelial neoplasms of the larynx. Particular attention is paid to features which are at variance with the conventional SCC and how these impact on management of these rare tumors.
Keywords: Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma; Adenosquamous carcinoma larynx; Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma; Histology; Laryngeal cancer; Lymphoepithelial carcinoma; Non-keratinizing HPV-positive squamous cell carcinoma; Papillary squamous cell carcinoma; Spindle cell carcinoma; Verrucous squamous cell carcinoma.