Objectives: Myocardial dysfunction may occur during weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Epicardial accelerometers have been shown to be useful in continuous monitoring of myocardial ischaemia during beating-heart surgery. We aimed to investigate whether an accelerometer can detect myocardial dysfunction during weaning from CPB.
Methods: In 23 patients undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR), a three-axis accelerometer was attached to the left ventricle and 3D velocity was calculated from the signals. Peak early systolic velocity (Vsys) and velocity at aortic valve closure (Vavc) were measured. Measurements were undertaken during normothermia with 50% bypass flow and atrial pacing (90 beats/min) before aortic cross-clamping and after cross-clamp removal. Myocardial dysfunction was defined as Vsys < Vavc, and patients were classified as having normal function or dysfunction. Left ventricular (LV) stroke work via pulmonary artery catheter and systolic velocity by echocardiography were compared between groups and used as reference methods.
Results: The accelerometer identified a substantial proportion of patients with myocardial dysfunction during weaning from CPB, 56% of patients compared with 11% before aortic cross-clamping. Patients classified with normal myocardial function during weaning significantly improved their LV stroke work and systolic velocity by echocardiography in response to AVR, whereas those classified with dysfunction did not. Accelerometer classification of normal function predicted an increase in echocardiographic systolic velocity [r = 0.63, regression coefficient 1.98, 95% CI (0.57, 3.40) (P < 0.01)].
Conclusions: The accelerometer detected myocardial dysfunction during weaning from CPB in accordance with measures obtained by echocardiography and pulmonary artery catheter.
Clinical trials identifier: NCT01926067. https://clinicaltrials.gov/.
Keywords: Aortic valve replacement; Cardiac monitoring; Left ventricular function; Motion sensor.
© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.