Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a potent osteoinductive cytokine from the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family, is currently the most commonly used protein-based bone graft substitute. Although clinical use of BMP-2 has significantly increased in recent years, its prominence has also highlighted various adverse events, including induction of inflammation. This review will elucidate the relationship between BMP-2 and inflammation, with an emphasis on peripheral nerve inflammation and its sequelae. As well, we review the potential additive roles of nerve released factors with BMP2 in the context of bone formation.
Keywords: Bone morphogenetic protein; Inflammation; Neural inflammation; Neuritis; Osteogenesis; Skeletal engineering.