Objective: The aim of this paper was to review and compare HIV vaccine cost-effectiveness analyses and describe the effects of uncertainty in model, methodology, and parameterization.
Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE (1985 through May 2016), EMBASE, the Tufts CEA Registry, and reference lists of articles following Cochrane guidelines and PRISMA reporting. Eligibility criteria included peer-reviewed manuscripts with economic models estimating cost-effectiveness of preventative HIV vaccines. Two reviewers independently assessed study quality and extracted data on model assumptions, characteristics, input parameters, and outcomes.
Results: The search yielded 71 studies, of which 11 met criteria for inclusion. Populations included low-income (n=7), middle-income (n=4), and high-income countries (n=2). Model structure varied including decision tree (n=1), Markov (n=5), compartmental (n=4), and microsimulation (n=1). Most measured outcomes in quality adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained (n=6) while others used unadjusted (n=3) or disability adjusted life-years (n=2). HIV vaccine cost ranged from $1.54 -$75 USD in low-income countries, $55-$100 in middle-income countries, and $500-$1,000 in the United States. Base case ICERs ranged from dominant (cost-offsetting) to $91,000 per QALY gained.
Conclusion: Most models predicted HIV vaccines would be cost-effective. Model assumptions about vaccine price, HIV treatment costs, epidemic context, and willingness to pay influenced results more consistently than assumptions on HIV transmission dynamics.