The pleiotropic regulation of cyclin D1 by newly identified sesaminol-binding protein ANT2

Oncogenesis. 2017 Apr 3;6(4):e311. doi: 10.1038/oncsis.2017.10.


The expression of cyclin D1 is upregulated in various cancer cells by diverse mechanisms, such as increases in mRNA levels, the promotion of the translation by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and the protein stabilization. We here show that sesaminol, a sesame lignan, reduces the expression of cyclin D1 with decreasing mRNA expression levels, inhibiting mTORC1 signaling and promoting proteasomal degradation. We subsequently generated sesaminol-immobilized FG beads to newly identify sesaminol-binding proteins. As a consequence, we found that adenine nucleotide translocase 2 (ANT2), the inner mitochondrial membrane protein, directly bound to sesaminol. Consistent with the effects of sesaminol, the depletion of ANT2 caused a reduction in cyclin D1 with decreases in its mRNA levels, mTORC1 inhibition and the proteasomal degradation of its protein, suggesting that sesaminol negatively regulates the function of ANT2. Furthermore, we screened other ANT2-binding compounds and found that the proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist troglitazone also reduced cyclin D1 expression in a multifaceted manner, analogous to that of the sesaminol treatment and ANT2 depletion. Therefore, the chemical biology approach using magnetic FG beads employed in the present study revealed that sesaminol bound to ANT2, which may pleiotropically upregulate cyclin D1 expression at the mRNA level and protein level with mTORC1 activation and protein stabilization. These results suggest the potential of ANT2 as a target against cyclin D1-overexpressing cancers.