Effect of germination on chemical, functional and nutritional characteristics of wheat, brown rice and triticale: a comparative study

J Sci Food Agric. 2017 Oct;97(13):4643-4651. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.8336. Epub 2017 Apr 26.


Background: Germination is accompanied by various metabolic reactions in the seed, which lead to alteration of its chemical composition as compared to raw seed. Among the micromolecules, amino acids play an important role in various growth and metabolic activities in seeds.

Results: Results indicated that germination altered seeds' chemical composition, which improved/changed the functional properties investigated such as bulk density, foaming capacity, water holding capacity, oil binding capacity and emulsification properties. Essential amino acids were increased during germination, which contributed in enhancing the nutritional quality of protein in seeds. Germination also improved protein-based quality parameters such as essential amino acid index, biological value, protein efficiency ratio and nutritional index in seeds of brown rice, wheat and triticale. Among the grains, the essential amino acid index of brown rice was reported to be highest after germination.

Conclusion: Indispensable/essential amino acids such as lysine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, phenylalanine and valine showed a significant increase during germination. As a result, amino acid scoring based on the reference pattern of an FAO Expert Consultation Report (2013) for infants and adults was appreciably improved after germination along with an increase in the essential amino acid indices for brown rice (78.78), wheat (76.55) and triticale (73.99). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

Keywords: EAAI; amino acid score; functional properties; germination; protein efficiency ratio; protein quality.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids / analysis
  • Dietary Fiber / analysis
  • Germination
  • Nutritive Value
  • Oryza / chemistry*
  • Oryza / growth & development
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Seeds / growth & development*
  • Triticale / chemistry*
  • Triticale / growth & development
  • Triticum / chemistry*
  • Triticum / growth & development


  • Amino Acids
  • Dietary Fiber