The activity of the Na,K-ATPase can be sensitive to physiological changes in Cai. Intracellular proteins such as calnaktin, calmodulin, and protein kinase C could regulate the pump during transient changes in Cai. The mechanisms by which these proteins interact with the Na,K-ATPase, their distribution in different kinds of cells, and their role in regulating the Na,K-ATPase are not yet determined. Preliminary data indicate that an increase in Cai within the physiological range could be associated with either a stimulation or an inhibition of enzyme activity or a change in the affinity of the Na,K-ATPase for ouabain. The type of response probably depends on the kind of cell, its associated intracellular proteins, and its physiological state. Ca and intracellular proteins could play a key role in the regulation of the Na,K-ATPase by hormones.