The Evidence-based Practice Attitude Scale-36 (EBPAS-36): a brief and pragmatic measure of attitudes to evidence-based practice validated in US and Norwegian samples

Implement Sci. 2017 Apr 4;12(1):44. doi: 10.1186/s13012-017-0573-0.


Background: Short and valid instruments for measuring factors facilitating or hindering implementation efforts are called for. This article describes (1) the adaptation of a shorter version of the Evidence-based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS-50 items), and (2) the psychometric properties of the shortened version in both US and Norwegian data.

Methods: The US participants were mental health service providers (N = 418) recruited from clinics providing mental health services in San Diego County, California. The Norwegian participants were psychologists, psychiatric nurses, and psychology students (N = 838) recruited from the Norwegian Psychological Association and the Norwegian Nurses Organization. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) approach was used.

Results: The reduction resulted in 36 items named EBPAS-36, and the original 12 factor model was maintained. The EBPAS-36 had acceptable model fit, as indicated by a low degree of misspecification errors in both the US (RMSEA = .045 (CI90% .040-.049); SRMR = .05) and the Norwegian data (RMSEA = .052 (CI90% .047-.056, SRMR = .07). Incremental model fit was fair in the US (CFI = .93, TLI = .91) and in the Norwegian samples (CFI = .91, TLI = .89). The internal consistency (Cronbach's α) in the US and the Norwegian samples were good for the total EBPAS-36 score (.79 and .86, respectively) and were ranged from adequate to excellent for the subscales (US .60-.91 and Norway .61-.92).

Conclusions: The EBPAS-36 has adequate psychometric properties both in US and Norwegian samples, hence indicating cross-cultural validity. It is a brief, pragmatic, and more user-friendly instrument than the EBPAS-50, yet maintains a broad scope by retaining the original 12 measurement domains.

Keywords: Attitudes; Evidence-based practice; Evidence-based practice in psychology; Evidence-based treatments; Implementation; Interventions; Mental health; Therapists.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Attitude of Health Personnel*
  • California
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Evidence-Based Practice / methods*
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Health Services*
  • Middle Aged
  • Norway
  • Nurses / psychology
  • Nurses / statistics & numerical data
  • Psychology / statistics & numerical data
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Students, Medical / psychology
  • Students, Medical / statistics & numerical data
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards*
  • Young Adult