Protective properties of 6-gingerol-rich fraction from Zingiber officinale (Ginger) on chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in the brain, ovary and uterus of rats

Chem Biol Interact. 2017 May 25:270:15-23. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2017.03.017. Epub 2017 Mar 31.


Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphorus pesticide widely used in agricultural applications and household environments. 6-Gingerol-rich fraction from Zingiber officinale (Ginger, 6-GRF) has been reported to possess potent anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Here, we investigated the protective properties of 6-GRF on CPF-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in the brain, ovary and uterus of rats. Five groups of rats containing 14 rats/group received corn oil (control), CPF (5 mg/kg), 6-GRF (100 mg/kg), CPF (5 mg/kg) + 6-GRF (50 mg/kg) and CPF (5 mg/kg) + 6-GRF (100 mg/kg) through gavage once per day for 35 days respectively. The results showed that 6-GRF protected against CPF-induced increases in oxidative stress ((hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA)), inflammatory (myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF- α)), and apoptotic (caspase-3) markers. Also, 6-GRF improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as glutathione (GSH) level in the brain, ovary and uterus of rats exposed to CPF (p < 0.05). Overall, the protective effects of 6-GRF on CPF-induced toxicity in the brain and reproductive organs of rats may be due to its potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties.

Keywords: Chlorpyrifos; Female reprotoxicity; Inflammation; Neurotoxicity; Oxidative damage; Zingiber officinale.

MeSH terms

  • ADAM17 Protein / drug effects
  • Animals
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Brain / drug effects*
  • Brain / pathology
  • Catechols / therapeutic use*
  • Chlorpyrifos / toxicity
  • Fatty Alcohols / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • Ginger / chemistry*
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Ovary / drug effects*
  • Ovary / pathology
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Uterus / drug effects*
  • Uterus / pathology


  • Catechols
  • Fatty Alcohols
  • Plant Extracts
  • gingerol
  • ADAM17 Protein
  • Chlorpyrifos