Cases of gonadal dysgenesis, both Turner syndrome and mixed, were studied with Y centromeric and short-arm probes. The Y-centromeric alphoid repeat clone, Y97, allowed sensitive detection of Y-chromosomal material in marker chromosomes or mosaics by in situ analysis or Southern hybridization with purified DNA. The Y short-arm probe, p75/79, allowed detection of sequences normally associated with proximal Yp by Southern analysis. The presence of DNA fragments characteristic of Yp correlates well with partial male sexual differentiation in the cases of mixed gonadal dysgenesis. Thus, the combined use of molecular and cytogenetic techniques has proven to be a powerful approach to the analysis of chromosomal sex disorders.