Association of the slow feathering (K) and an endogenous viral (ev21) gene on the Z chromosome of chickens

Poult Sci. 1988 Feb;67(2):191-7. doi: 10.3382/ps.0670191.


A dominant sex-linked gene, K, regulates slow feathering (SF), whereas a recessive allele, k+, determines rapid feathering (RF) in chickens. This trait provides a convenient and inexpensive approach to gender identification of White Leghorn (WL) chicks at hatch, i.e., in a sex-linked mating using k+/k+ males mated with K/- females, the K/k+ male chicks are SF, and the k+/- females are RF. However, in many WL strains, female progeny of SF dams produce fewer eggs and have higher mortality than progeny of RF dams. This loss in productivity has been attributed to higher infection and shedding rates for leukosis viruses (ALV) in SF than in RF dam lines. Because infectious endogenous viruses (EV) can induce immunological tolerance to ALV, we examined the expression and distribution of ev genes in SF and RF siblings from heterozygous K/k+ sires and k+/- dams. Infectious ALV and EV were detected by cocultivation of frozen heparinized blood cells on selected chick embryo fibroblasts and culture supernatants were tested for viral antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests. Specific ev genes were identified as restriction fragment length polymorphisms after hybridization with a recombinant plasmid containing the complete genome of a Rous-associated virus. It was concluded that ev21 and K genes are tightly linked because, in different WL crosses, all SF chicks inherited ev21 but RF siblings uniformly lacked ev21. Alternatively, the K gene in WL may be a mutation resulting from the insertion of ev21 in the k+ gene. The SF chicks which harbor ev21 expressed infectious EV21; evidence that EV21 may influence susceptibility to ALV is presented.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Avian Leukosis / genetics*
  • Avian Leukosis Virus / genetics
  • Chickens / genetics*
  • Chromosomes / analysis*
  • Feathers*
  • Female
  • Genes, Viral
  • Male
  • Poultry Diseases / genetics*
  • Poultry Diseases / microbiology
  • Sex Determination Analysis