Multicenter, open-label, extension trial to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of early versus delayed treatment with tolvaptan in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: the TEMPO 4:4 Trial

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2018 Mar 1;33(3):477-489. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfx043.


Background: In TEMPO 3:4, the vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan slowed total kidney volume (TKV) growth and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline relative to placebo.

Methods: TEMPO 4:4 was designed to provide an additional 2 years of data on the long-term safety and efficacy of tolvaptan in subjects completing TEMPO 3:4. The objective was to assess the disease-modifying effects of tolvaptan on TKV and eGFR end-points including change from baseline over the combined duration of TEMPO 3:4 and TEMPO 4:4, and non-inferiority of slopes during TEMPO 4:4.

Results: Of the 1445 subjects randomized to TEMPO 3:4, 871 (60.3%) enrolled in TEMPO 4:4. Percent changes in TKV from TEMPO 3:4 baseline to TEMPO 4:4 Month 24 were 29.9% and 31.6% (prior tolvaptan versus prior placebo, P = 0.38). Adjusting for baseline covariates improved the TKV treatment difference at Month 24 in TEMPO 4:4 from -1.70% to - 4.15% between the groups (P = 0.04). Slopes of TKV growth during TEMPO 4:4 were higher in early- versus delayed-treatment groups (6.16% versus 4.96% per year, P = 0.05). Analysis of secondary eGFR endpoints demonstrated a persistent effect on eGFR (3.15 mL/min/1.73 m2, P < 0.001), and non-inferiority in eGFR slopes. The safety profile on exposure to tolvaptan in TEMPO 4:4 was similar to that in TEMPO 3:4.

Conclusions: The results of TEMPO 4:4 support a sustained disease-modifying effect of tolvaptan on eGFR. The lack of a sustained treatment difference on TKV may be accounted for by limitations of the trial design, including loss of randomization and baseline imbalances ensuing TEMPO 3:4. The safety profile was similar to that observed in TEMPO 3:4.

Trial registration: NCT00428948.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Benzazepines / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant / drug therapy*
  • Prognosis
  • Time-to-Treatment*
  • Tolvaptan / therapeutic use*


  • Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists
  • Benzazepines
  • Tolvaptan

Associated data