The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt, and test the psychometric performance of a questionnaire to assess health literacy. Brazilian university students (n = 472) with a mean age of 22.7 (5.3) years participated in the study. The validities of the factor, convergent, and discriminant structure were tested using structural equations analysis. The 4-factors model showed only fair results, but was nevertheless the most adequate in terms of factor validity and proved invariant in independent samples. Convergent validity was only adequate for the factor "Search for Health Information", while discriminant validity was adequate for the factors "Search for Information" and "Understanding Information". Internal consistency showed adequate results on all the items. The second-order hierarchical model, although not totally adequate, slowly slightly higher fit indices and thus allowed calculating an overall health literacy score considering each item's best weight.