Background: The risk prediction of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) for future cardiovascular (CV) events post acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was investigated in comparison to other risk factors.
Methods: PAPP-A was measured at hospital admission in 320 consecutive ACS patients (136 with T2DM and 184 without). All patients were followed for 2 years for occurrence of CV death, non-fatal MI or stroke. Effect of PAPP-A on the CV event risk was estimated using Cox regression models. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were generated to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of PAPP-A in predicting CV events.
Results: ACS patients with T2DM had higher PAPP-A (19.29 ± 16.36 vs. 13.29 ± 13.90 ng/ml, p < 0.001) and higher rate of CV events 2 years post ACS (27.2 vs. 13.6%, p = 0.002) than those without. Higher levels of PAPP-A were significantly associated with increased risk of CV events during 2-year follow-up [HR = 2.97 for 1 SD increase in log10(PAPP-A), 95% CI 2.11-4.18, p < 0.001] in T2DM and (HR = 3.16, 95% CI 2.27-4.39, p < 0.001) in non-T2DM. Among patients with T2DM, PAPP-A showed a larger area under the curve (AUC 0.79) that was significantly more predictive than hsCRP (AUC 0.64), eGFR (AUC 0.66) and LVEF < 50% (AUC 0.52); predictive ability did not improve significantly by including those factors into the model.
Conclusions: Patients with T2DM had higher levels of PAPP-A and increased risk of CV events. Elevated PAPP-A compared to other risk factors was a stronger predictor for future CV events 2 years post ACS in patients with T2DM. Trial registration ISRCTN10805074. Registered on 20 January 2017, retrospectively registered.
Keywords: Acute coronary syndrome; Cardiovascular outcomes; Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A; Type-2 diabetes mellitus.