The dihydrofolate reductase gene (DFR1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been mapped and sequenced. The gene was isolated on an 8.8-kb BamHI fragment from a yeast genomic library by screening of Escherichia coli transformants for resistance to trimethoprim. A 1.8-kb SalI-BamHI fragment which was able to confer methotrexate resistance in yeast also complemented an E. coli DHFR-deficient (folA) mutant. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the yeast DFR1 gene encoded a polypeptide with a predicted Mr of 24230. The deduced sequence of 211 amino acid residues showed considerable homology with DHFRs from both bacterial and animal sources. The codon bias index of the DFR1 coding region is 0.0083, which indicates a random pattern of codon usage. The upstream region contains two consensus sequences required for binding of the yeast's positive regulatory factor, GCN4, suggesting that the DFR1 gene might be subject to the amino acid general control. Several potential 'TATA' boxes are located in the sequence 5' to the gene. Located in the 3' flanking region are homologies with several canonical sequences thought to be required for efficient transcription termination in yeast. We also mapped the DFR1 gene to a position 1.4 cM proximal to the MET7 locus on chromosome XV.