Background: Socioeconomic status and gender are associated with access to cardiac procedures and mortality after AMI, also in countries with universal health care systems. Our objective was to evaluate the association and trends of educational level or gender and the following outcomes: 1) access to PTCA; 2) 30-day mortality.
Methods: We conducted an observational study based on 14,013 subjects aged 35-74 years, residing in Rome in 2001, and hospitalised for incident STEMI within 2012 in the Lazio region. We estimated adjusted ORs of educational level or gender and: 1) PTCA within 2 days after hospitalisation, 2) 30-day mortality. We evaluated time trends of outcomes, and time trends of educational or gender differentials estimating ORs stratified by time period (two time periods between 2001 and 2012). We performed a hierarchical analysis to account for clustering of hospitals.
Results: Access to PTCA among patients with incident STEMI increased during the study period, while 30-day mortality was stable. We observed educational differentials in PTCA procedure only in the first time period, and gender differentials in both periods. Patterns for 30-day mortality were less marked, with educational differentials emerging only in the second period, and gender differentials only in the first one, with patients with low educational level and females being disadvantaged.
Conclusions: Educational differentials in the access to PTCA disappeared in Lazio region over time, coherently with scientific literature, while gender differentials seem to persist. It may be important to assess the role of female gender in patients with STEMI, both from a social and a clinical point of view.