Psychosocial outcomes in adult men born with hypospadias: A register-based study

PLoS One. 2017 Apr 6;12(4):e0174923. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174923. eCollection 2017.


In this nationwide matched cohort study, we have investigated whether being born with hypospadias affect subsequent psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. We analyzed prospectively collected data from national Swedish registers. Data on the diagnoses were collected from the National Patient Register and the Medical Birth Register. Data on psychosocial outcomes such as educational and income level, marital status and disability pension were collected from Statistics Sweden. The effects of covariates, such as age, county of birth, presence of other malformations and psychiatric illness, were taken into account. The associations between hypospadias and psychosocial outcomes were calculated using conditional logistic regression and expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 4378 men diagnosed with hypospadias, born between 1969 and 1993 in Sweden. Patients with hypospadias were matched with unaffected men by year of birth and birth county. We did not detect any differences in educational or income level. The probability of entering marriage (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90-1.14) did not differ, regardless of phenotype. We did, however, detect a 40% increased probability of receiving a disability pension, (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.20-1.61). In conclusion, men born with hypospadias in Sweden do not differ from unaffected men with respect to the majority of psychosocial outcomes studied. They are, however, at increased risk of receiving a disability pension, which motivates further investigations.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Humans
  • Hypospadias / psychology*
  • Male
  • Registries*
  • Sweden

Grants and funding

We acknowledge financial support from the Swedish Research Council grant no. K2012-64X-14506-10-5, the Stockholm City Council, the Foundation Frimurare Barnhuset in Stockholm and the Swedish Research Council through the Swedish Initiative for Research on Microdata in the Social And Medical Sciences (SIMSAM) framework grant no. 340-2013-5867. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.