Zingiber officinale: Its antibacterial activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mode of action evaluated by flow cytometry

Microb Pathog. 2017 Jun;107:254-260. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2017.03.029. Epub 2017 Apr 4.


Biofilm formation, low membrane permeability and efflux activity developed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, play an important role in the mechanism of infection and antimicrobial resistance. In the present study we evaluate the antibacterial effect of Zingiber officinale against multi-drug resistant strain of P. aeruginosa. The study explores antibacterial efficacy and time-kill study concomitantly the effect of herbal extract on bacterial cell physiology with the use of flow cytometry and inhibition of biofilm formation. Z. officinale was found to inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa, significantly. A major decline in the Colony Forming Units was observed with 3 log10 at 12 h of treatment. Also it is found to affect the membrane integrity of the pathogen, as 70.06 ± 2.009% cells were found to stain with Propidium iodide. In case of efflux activity 86.9 ± 2.08% cells were found in Ethidium bromide positive region. Biofilm formation inhibition ability was found in the range of 68.13 ± 4.11% to 84.86 ± 2.02%. Z.officinale is effective for killing Multi-Drug Resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolate by affecting the cellular physiology and inhibiting the biofilm formation.

Keywords: Biofilm formation; Cell membrane integrity; Drug resistance; PI uptake; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Zingiber officinale.

MeSH terms

  • Alkaloids / analysis
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Biofilms / drug effects
  • Biofilms / growth & development
  • Cell Membrane / drug effects
  • Colony Count, Microbial
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial / drug effects
  • Flavonoids / analysis
  • Flow Cytometry / methods*
  • Ginger / chemistry*
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / analysis
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Microbial Viability / drug effects
  • Nitric Oxide / analysis
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Propidium / metabolism
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / drug effects*
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / growth & development
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / physiology*
  • Rhizome / chemistry
  • Tannins / analysis
  • Time Factors


  • Alkaloids
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Flavonoids
  • Plant Extracts
  • Tannins
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Propidium
  • Hydrogen Peroxide