This review focuses on histopathological aspects of carcinoma of the prostate. A tissue diagnosis of adenocarcinoma is often essential for establishing a diagnosis of prostate cancer, and the foundation for a tissue diagnosis is currently light microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained tissue sections. Markers detected by immunohistochemistry on tissue sections can support a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma that is primary in the prostate gland or metastatic. Histological variants of carcinoma of the prostate are important for diagnostic recognition of cancer or as clinicopathologic entities that have prognostic and/or therapeutic significance. Histological grading of adenocarcinoma of the prostate, including use of the 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) modified Gleason grades and the new grade groups, is one of the most powerful prognostic indicators for clinically localized prostate cancer, and is one of the most critical factors in determination of management of these patients.
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