The recent advances of phenotypes in acute exacerbations of COPD

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2017 Mar 27;12:1009-1018. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S128604. eCollection 2017.


Exacerbations of COPD are clinically relevant events with therapeutic and prognostic implications. Yet, significant heterogeneity of clinical presentation and disease progression exists within acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). Currently, different phenotypes have been widely used to describe the characteristics among patients with AECOPD. This has proved to be significant in the treatment and prediction of the outcomes of the disease. In this review of published literature, the phenotypes of AECOPD were classified according to etiology, inflammatory biomarkers, clinical manifestation, comorbidity, the frequency of exacerbations, and so on. This review concentrates on advancements in the use of phenotypes of AECOPD.

Keywords: COPD; acute exacerbation; phenotype; prognosis; treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Comorbidity
  • Disease Progression
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators / blood
  • Lung / metabolism
  • Lung / physiopathology*
  • Phenotype
  • Prognosis
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / blood
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / diagnosis
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / physiopathology*
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / therapy
  • Risk Factors


  • Biomarkers
  • Inflammation Mediators