Current use of factor concentrates in pediatric cardiac anesthesia

Paediatr Anaesth. 2017 Jul;27(7):678-687. doi: 10.1111/pan.13158. Epub 2017 Apr 10.


Excessive bleeding following pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, both from the effects of hemorrhage and the therapies employed to achieve hemostasis. Neonates and infants are especially at risk because their coagulation systems are immature, surgeries are often complex, and cardiopulmonary bypass technologies are inappropriately matched to patient size and physiology. Consequently, these young children receive substantial amounts of adult-derived blood products to restore adequate hemostasis. Adult and pediatric data demonstrate associations between blood product transfusions and adverse patient outcomes. Thus, efforts to limit bleeding after pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass and minimize allogeneic blood product exposure are warranted. The off-label use of factor concentrates, such as fibrinogen concentrate, recombinant activated factor VII, and prothrombin complex concentrates, is increasing as these hemostatic agents appear to offer several advantages over conventional blood products. However, recognizing that these agents have the potential for both benefit and harm, well-designed studies are needed to enhance our knowledge and to determine the optimal use of these agents. In this review, our primary objective was to examine the evidence regarding the use of factor concentrates to treat bleeding after pediatric CPB and identify where further research is required. PubMed, MEDLINE/OVID, The Cochrane Library and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were systematically searched to identify existing studies.

Keywords: bleeding; cardiac surgery; cardiopulmonary bypass; factor concentrates; pediatric anesthesia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Anesthesia / methods*
  • Blood Coagulation Factors / therapeutic use*
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / adverse effects
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass / adverse effects
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Hemostasis
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Pediatrics / methods*
  • Postoperative Hemorrhage / prevention & control*


  • Blood Coagulation Factors