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Review
. 2017 May;16(5):603-615.
doi: 10.1080/14740338.2017.1317344.

The Safety of Extended-Release Drug Formulations for the Treatment of ADHD

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Review

The Safety of Extended-Release Drug Formulations for the Treatment of ADHD

Ann Childress. Expert Opin Drug Saf. .

Abstract

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex neurobehavioral disorder affecting millions of patients worldwide. Effective treatments have been available for more than 60 years in the form of immediate-release (IR) stimulants However, stimulants have a high risk for abuse and are associated with adverse effects Including elevated blood pressure and heart rate, insomnia and decreased appetite. IR formulations also require multiple daily dosing. The search for improved safety, tolerability and convenience has led to the development of multiple extended-release (ER) stimulant and non-stimulant formulations. Areas covered: Adverse effects of (ER) products including amphetamine, methylphenidate, clonidine and guanfacine will be reviewed and their significance discussed. Expert opinion: Limitations of currently marketed medications have led to the search for drugs with efficacy comparable to ER stimulants and a more favorable adverse event profile. Several are in development, but their potential utility is not yet known. Current research is also focused on finding specific genetic defects in patients with ADHD. Exciting progress has been made with the identification of mGluR receptor defects in some patients. However because of the heterogeneity of the disorder, effective targeted treatments for the majority of patients with ADHD does not appear likely in the near future.

Keywords: ADHD; amphetamine; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; clonidine; guanfacine; methylphenidate.

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