Genes Involved in the Enamel Development Are Associated with Calcium and Phosphorus Level in Saliva

Caries Res. 2017;51(3):225-230. doi: 10.1159/000450764. Epub 2017 Apr 11.


Saliva components play a crucial role in the integrity of the dental enamel and in caries susceptibility. The saliva characteristics are controlled by many factors, including genetic factors. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the association between the genetic variations in genes expressed in enamel development with calcium and phosphorus levels in saliva. We collected 276 unrelated 12-year-old children from private and public schools. Saliva was collected for DNA extraction from oral cells and for measurement of calcium and phosphorus. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry determined calcium and phosphorus levels in whole saliva. Fifteen genetic variations in 9 genes were analyzed. The genotype was determined by real-time polymerase chain reactions. Data were analyzed using Plink with an alpha of 5%. Genetic variations in AMELX, AMNB and ESRRB were associated with the calcium level in saliva (p < 0.05). A borderline association was observed in ENAM allele distribution shown with phosphate level in saliva (p = 0.049). In conclusion, our results are the first to report that genetic variations contribute to calcium and phosphorus levels in saliva.

Keywords: Enamel; Polymorphism; Saliva.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amelogenesis / genetics*
  • Amelogenin / genetics*
  • Calcium / analysis*
  • Child
  • Dental Enamel Proteins / genetics*
  • Female
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Phenotype
  • Phosphorus / analysis*
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Receptors, Estrogen / genetics*
  • Saliva / chemistry*
  • Spectrophotometry, Atomic


  • AMBN protein, human
  • AMELX protein, human
  • Amelogenin
  • Dental Enamel Proteins
  • ESRRB protein, human
  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Phosphorus
  • Calcium