Using a combination of conventional column chromatography and velocity sedimentation, we have purified the 65-kilodalton DNA-binding protein (65KDBP) encoded by herpes simplex virus (HSV) greater than 625-fold. The HSV type 1 (HSV-1)-encoded DNA polymerase (pol) cofractionated with 65KDBP through DEAE-Sephacel, Blue Sepharose, and Mono Q columns and was only separated from 65KDBP by sedimentation through a glycerol gradient. Immunoaffinity columns containing monoclonal antibody (MAb) 6898 immunoglobulin effectively bound most of the HSV-1 pol activity which coeluted with 65KDBP. The pattern of reactivities of HSV-1/HSV-2 recombinants with MAbs specific for HSV-1 65KDBP or the HSV-2-infected cell-specific protein ICSP34,35 strongly suggests that these two species are serotype equivalents of the same protein. Taken together, all these data indicate that 65KDBP is a pol-associated protein and the HSV-1 counterpart of HSV-2 ICSP34,35 previously reported to have similar properties (P. J. Vaughan, D. J. M. Purifoy, and K. L. Powell, J. Virol. 53:501-508, 1985). Purified preparations of 65KDBP were capable of binding to double-stranded DNA, as determined by filter retention and mobility shift assays. The protein-DNA complex formed with 65KDBP was distinct from that produced by pol and could be further shifted by the addition of immunoglobulin specific for 65KDBP. These results demonstrate that 65KDBP has been purified substantially free from pol and indicate that DNA binding is an inherent property of the protein.