Evaluating the effectiveness of risk minimisation measures: the application of a conceptual framework to Danish real-world dabigatran data

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2017 Jun;26(6):607-614. doi: 10.1002/pds.4203. Epub 2017 Apr 11.


Purpose: For both marketing authorization holders and regulatory authorities, evaluating the effectiveness of risk minimization measures is now an integral part of pharmacovigilance in the European Union. The overall aim of activities in this area is to assess the performance of risk minimization measures implemented in order to ensure a positive benefit-risk balance in patients treated with a medicinal product.

Methods: Following a review of the relevant literature, we developed a conceptual framework consisting of four domains (data, knowledge, behaviour and outcomes) intended for the evaluation of risk minimization measures put into practice in the Danish health-care system. For the implementation of the framework, four classes of monitoring variables can be named and defined: patient descriptors, performance-related indicators of knowledge, behaviour and outcomes.

Results: We reviewed the features of the framework when applied to historical, real-world data following the introduction of dabigatran in Denmark for the prophylactic treatment of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

Conclusions: The application of the framework provided useful graphical displays and an opportunity for a statistical evaluation (interrupted time series analysis) of a regulatory intervention. © 2017 Commonwealth of Australia. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Keywords: interrupted time series analysis; pharmacoepidemiology; pharmacovigilance; real-world data; risk management.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antithrombins / therapeutic use*
  • Atrial Fibrillation / drug therapy
  • Atrial Fibrillation / epidemiology
  • Dabigatran / therapeutic use*
  • Databases, Factual / statistics & numerical data*
  • Delivery of Health Care / statistics & numerical data*
  • Denmark / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Pharmacovigilance*
  • Risk Assessment


  • Antithrombins
  • Dabigatran