Towards better dose individualisation: metabolic phenotyping to predict cabazitaxel pharmacokinetics in men with prostate cancer

Br J Cancer. 2017 May 9;116(10):1312-1317. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2017.91. Epub 2017 Apr 11.


Background: Cabazitaxel is approved for treatment of castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer. The current dosing strategy of cabazitaxel is based on body surface area (BSA). Body surface area is known as a poor predictor for total systemic exposure to drugs, since it does not take into account variability in activity of metabolising enzymes, necessary for clearance of drugs. As exposure to cabazitaxel is related to treatment response, it is essential to develop a better individualised dosing strategy.

Methods: Ten patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, who received cabazitaxel dosed on BSA as a part of routine palliative care, were enrolled in this study. Midazolam was administered as phenotyping probe for cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A (CYP3A). The relationship between midazolam and cabazitaxel clearance was investigated using non-linear mixed effects modelling.

Results: The clearance of Midazolam highly correlated with cabazitaxel clearance (R=0.74). Midazolam clearance significantly (P<0.004) explained the majority (∼60%) of the inter-individual variability in cabazitaxel clearance in the studied population.

Conclusions: Metabolic phenotyping of CYP3A using midazolam is a promising strategy to individualise cabazitaxel dosing. Before clinical application, a randomised study is warranted.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anti-Anxiety Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics*
  • Body Surface Area
  • Carcinoma / drug therapy*
  • Carcinoma / metabolism*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Midazolam / pharmacokinetics
  • Phenotype
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant / drug therapy*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant / metabolism*
  • Taxoids / administration & dosage*
  • Taxoids / pharmacokinetics*


  • Anti-Anxiety Agents
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Taxoids
  • cabazitaxel
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
  • Midazolam