Objectives: The aim of our study was to evaluate in utero blood transfusion's (IUT) performed in France, among the French prenatal diagnosis centers in order to study the etiology of severe anemia requiring IUT.
Methods: We conducted a national retrospective descriptive study between 2011 and 2014. The data were collected using a survey sent by email to all French prenatal diagnosis centers.
Results: Among the 49 centers, 18 (38 %) had performed at least one IUT during the study period. The geographical repartition of these centers was appropriate for the "Aquitaine Pyrénées" region. Five centers performed 68 % of the national activity and one center performed 40 % the national activity. Each year, a mean of 204 IUTs were performed in 113 pregnancies. The principal etiology of severe fetal anemia requiring IUT was hemolytic disease of the fetus (69 % of the etiologies) with anti-RhD being the most prevalent antibody. The second etiology was represented by parvovirus B19 infection (17 % of IUTs).
Conclusion: The French IUT activity was stable in numbers and indications during the study period. A national register could be set up in order to better evaluate prospectively the number of pregnancies concerned by IUT and to study the prevalence of hemolytic disease of the fetus due to anti-RhD antibodies.
Keywords: Allo-immunisations érythrocytaires; Anémie fœtale; Complicated pregnancies; Complications de la grossesse; Fetal anemia; Fetal red cell transfusion; Incompatibilité fœto-maternelle érythrocytaire; Infection à parvovirus; Maladie rhésus; Maternal alloimmunization; Materno-fetal red blood cell incompatibility; Parvovirus B19 infection; Transfusion in utero.
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