In vitro and in vivo digestibility and metabolic effects of 3 wheat-flour products (white bread, french toast (rusk) and french toast bran-enriched) in normal subjects

Diabete Metab. 1988 Mar-Apr;14(2):92-6.


We devised to study the effects of two technological processings of industrial bread (degree of cooking and enrichment with bran) on in vitro digestibility and repercussions on carbohydrate metabolism in healthy subjects. 3 products were tested in vitro and in vivo: white bread (WB), french toast obtained from the same white bread (FT) and french toast enriched with bran (BFT). In vitro, the percentage of starch hydrolysed was significantly lower for the bran-enriched toast than for WB and FT (p less than 0.001). In vivo, the 3 products and an oral glucose load were given at 08.00 h, after an overnight fast, to 12 healthy volunteers (8 F; 4 M); (age = 24 +/- 1 years; BMI = 21.9 +/- 0.9; mean +/- SEM) on four consecutive days and in random order (latin squares 3 x 4). Each meal contained 35 g carbohydrate and 125 ml water and, for the wheat products, about 190 Kcal. The mean results of the glycemic indexes were: WB = 115 +/- 17%; FT = 99 +/- 21%; BFT = 87 +/- 21% (NS) with the corresponding insulin indexes at 81 +/- 8%, 79 +/- 9% and 90 +/- 8% respectively (NS). The mean plasma glucose and insulin values at 30 minutes did not differ between the three tested foods but were all significantly lower than that observed with glucose (p less than 0.01). Plasma glucose transiently descended below baseline values in all subjects for glucose and BFT. Neither the toasting process nor the presence of wheat bran had any major effect upon hyperglycemia and insulin secretion in the healthy subjects studied.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Bread
  • Cooking
  • Dietary Fiber*
  • Digestion*
  • Flour*
  • Humans
  • Reference Values
  • Triticum


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Fiber