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Review
. 2017 Jul;42:11-25.
doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2017.03.007. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Genetics of Recurrent Miscarriage and Fetal Loss

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Review

Genetics of Recurrent Miscarriage and Fetal Loss

M H Tur-Torres et al. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. .

Abstract

Despite years of research, miscarriage, particularly when recurrent, continues to pose a medical challenge. An embryo chromosomal error is responsible for 50-60% of recurrent cases; however, up to 30-50% remains an enigma. Successful pregnancy involves different maternal physiologic changes and certain complex interactions between the fetus and the mother by cytokines, angiogenic mediators and hormones. To date, research lines have focused on genetic and epigenetic polymorphisms related mainly to immune response and inflammatory mediators, and have yielded a significant relationship between recurrent miscarriage and immune mechanisms. Thus, unknown causes of miscarriage could be due to an immune imbalance induced by T-helper Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines and regulatory T cells. Furthermore, these genes and mediators have long been suspected of being blood markers for the clinical diagnosis and management of miscarriage; however, more evidence is required for them to be included in medical practice and obstetric guidelines.

Keywords: chromosome abnormalities; genetic alterations; genetic polymorphisms; karyotype; recurrent miscarriage; single miscarriage.

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