Immune regulation by cytokines is crucial in maintaining immune homeostasis, promoting responses to infection, resolving inflammation, and promoting immunological memory. Additionally, cytokine responses drive pathology in immune-mediated disease. A crucial cytokine in the regulation of all aspects of an immune response is transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ). Although best known as a crucial regulator of T cell responses, TGFβ plays a vital role in regulating responses mediated by virtually every innate and adaptive immune cell, including dendritic cells, B cells, NK cells, innate lymphoid cells, and granulocytes. Here, we review our current knowledge of how TGFβ regulates the immune system, highlighting the multifunctional nature of TGFβ and how its function can change depending on location and context of action.
Keywords: B cell; Dendritic cell; Eosinophil; Innate lymphoid cell; Mast cell; NK cell; Neutrophil; Regulatory T cell; T cell; TGFβ; Transforming growth factor beta.
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