We previously showed that xanthohumol-rich hop extract (XRHE, ~18% xanthohumol) exerts anti-obesity effects in rats fed a high-fat diet through regulation of fatty acid metabolism. In this study, we examined the effects of dietary purified xanthohumol from XRHE (PX, ~91.9% xanthohumol) in KK-Ay mice in order to understand the anti-obesity effects of xanthohumol alone because XRHE contains 82% unknown compounds. Dietary consumption of PX significantly inhibited an increase in the visceral fat weight of mice compared to those fed control diet without PX. Plasma leptin level was significantly lower in the PX-fed group than in the control group. Dietary PX lowered hepatic fatty acid synthesis by down-regulation of SREBP1c mRNA expression in the liver. On the other hand, fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver was promoted by dietary PX through the up-regulation of PPARα mRNA expression. Moreover, the fecal levels of fatty acids and carbohydrates increased by dietary PX. PX inhibited lipase or α-amylase activity in vitro. Thus, we found that PX may exert anti-obesity effects through the regulation of lipid metabolism and inhibition of intestinal fat and carbohydrate absorption, and that xanthohumol alone may exert anti-obesity effects.
Keywords: hop; lipid metabolism; mouse; obesity; xanthohumol.