Lymphotoxin signalling in tertiary lymphoid structures and immunotherapy

Cell Mol Immunol. 2017 Oct;14(10):809-818. doi: 10.1038/cmi.2017.13. Epub 2017 Apr 17.


Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) often develop at sites of persistent inflammation, including cancers and autoimmune diseases. In most cases, the presence of TLS correlates with active immune responses. Because of their proximity to pathological loci, TLS are an intriguing target for the manipulation of immune responses. For several years, it has become clear that lymphotoxin (LT) signalling plays critical roles in lymphoid tissue organogenesis and maintenance. In the current review, we will discuss the role of LT signalling in the development of TLS. With a focus on cancers and autoimmune diseases, we will highlight the correlations between TLS and disease progression. We will also discuss the current efforts and potential directions for manipulating TLS for immunotherapies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoimmune Diseases / immunology*
  • Carcinogenesis
  • Disease Progression
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy / methods*
  • Lymphoid Tissue / physiology*
  • Lymphotoxin-alpha / metabolism*
  • Neoplasms / immunology*
  • Organogenesis
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tertiary Lymphoid Structures / immunology*


  • Lymphotoxin-alpha