Background: A preventative strategy for Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection constitutes an under-recognized unmet medical need among older adults. Four formulations of a novel recombinant RSV F nanoparticle vaccine (60 or 90 μg RSV F protein, with or without aluminum phosphate adjuvant) administered concurrently with a licensed inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in older adult subjects were evaluated for safety and immunogenicity in this randomized, observer-blinded study.
Results: A total of 220 healthy males and females ≥ 60 years of age, without symptomatic cardiopulmonary disease, were vaccinated concurrently with TIV and RSV F vaccine or placebo. All vaccine formulations produced an acceptable safety profile, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events or evidence of systemic toxicity. Vaccine-induced immune responses were rapid, rising as early as 7 days post-vaccination; and were comparable in all formulations in terms of magnitude, with maximal levels attained within 28 (unadjuvanted) or 56 (adjuvanted) days post-vaccination. Peak anti-F protein IgG antibody levels rose 3.6- to 5.6-fold, with an adjuvant effect observed at the 60 μg dose, and a dose-effect observed between the unadjuvanted 60 and 90 μg regimens. The anti-F response persisted through 12 months post-vaccination. Palivizumab-competitive antibodies were below quantifiable levels (<33 μg/mL) at day 0. The rise of antibodies with specificity for Site II peptide, and the palivizumab-competitive binding activity, denoting antibodies binding at, or in proximity to, antigenic Site II on the F protein, closely paralleled the anti-F response. However, a larger proportion of antibodies in adjuvanted vaccine recipients bound to the Site II peptide at high avidity. Day 0 neutralizing antibodies were high in all subjects and rose 1.3- to 1.7-fold in response to vaccination. Importantly, the RSV F vaccine co-administered with TIV did not impact the serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody responses to a standard-dose TIV, and TIV did not impact the immune response to the RSV F vaccine.
Conclusions: RSV F protein nanoparticle vaccine induced increases in measures of functional immunity to RSV in older adults and demonstrated an acceptable safety profile. Adjuvanted formulations provided additional immunogenicity benefit as compared to increasing antigen dose alone. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01709019.
Keywords: Anti-F IgG; Avidity; F or fusion protein; Microneutralization; Nanoparticle vaccine; Palivizumab-competitive antibody (PCA); Recombinant; Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).