Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Sacubitril/Valsartan (LCZ696): A Novel Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor

Clin Pharmacokinet. 2017 Dec;56(12):1461-1478. doi: 10.1007/s40262-017-0543-3.

Abstract

Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) is indicated for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Absorption of sacubitril/valsartan and conversion of sacubitril (prodrug) to sacubitrilat (neprilysin inhibitor) was rapid with maximum plasma concentrations of sacubitril, sacubitrilat, and valsartan (angiotensin receptor blocker) reaching within 0.5, 1.5-2.0, and 2.0-3.0 h, respectively. With a two-fold increase in dose, an increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was proportional for sacubitril, ~1.9-fold for sacubitrilat, and ~1.7-fold for valsartan in healthy subjects. Following multiple twice-daily administration, steady-state maximum plasma concentration was reached within 3 days, showing no accumulation for sacubitril and valsartan, while ~1.6-fold accumulation for sacubitrilat. Sacubitril is eliminated predominantly as sacubitrilat through the kidney; valsartan is eliminated mainly by biliary route. Drug-drug interactions of sacubitril/valsartan were evaluated with medications commonly used in patients with heart failure including furosemide, warfarin, digoxin, carvedilol, levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol combination, amlodipine, omeprazole, hydrochlorothiazide, intravenous nitrates, metformin, statins, and sildenafil. Co-administration with sacubitril/valsartan increased the maximum plasma concentration (~2.0-fold) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (1.3-fold) of atorvastatin; however, it did not affect the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin. Age, sex, or ethnicity did not affect the pharmacokinetics of sacubitril/valsartan. In patients with heart failure vs. healthy subjects, area under the plasma concentration-time curves of sacubitril, sacubitrilat, and valsartan were higher by approximately 1.6-, 2.1-, and 2.3-fold, respectively. Renal impairment had no significant impact on sacubitril and valsartan area under the plasma concentration-time curves, while the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of sacubitrilat correlated with degree of renal function (1.3-, 2.3-, 2.9-, and 3.3-fold with mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment, and end-stage renal disease, respectively). Moderate hepatic impairment increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curves of valsartan and sacubitrilat ~2.1-fold.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aminobutyrates / pharmacokinetics*
  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists / pharmacokinetics*
  • Area Under Curve
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Drug Combinations
  • Drug Interactions
  • Heart Failure / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Liver Diseases
  • Renal Insufficiency / complications
  • Tetrazoles / pharmacokinetics*
  • Valsartan

Substances

  • Aminobutyrates
  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Drug Combinations
  • Tetrazoles
  • Valsartan
  • sacubitril and valsartan sodium hydrate drug combination