The Association between Breakfast Skipping and Body Weight, Nutrient Intake, and Metabolic Measures among Participants with Metabolic Syndrome

Nutrients. 2017 Apr 14;9(4):384. doi: 10.3390/nu9040384.


The effect of skipping breakfast on health, especially in adults, remains a controversial topic. A secondary data analysis was conducted to examine associations between breakfast eating patterns and weight loss, nutrient intake, and metabolic parameters among participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (n = 240). Three randomly selected 24-h dietary recalls were collected from each participant at baseline and at the one-year visit. Skipped breakfast was seen in 32.9% at baseline and in 17.4% at the one-year visit, respectively. At baseline, after adjustment for demographics and physical activity, participants who ate breakfast had a higher thiamin, niacin, and folate intake than did breakfast skippers (p < 0.05); other selected parameters including body weight, dietary quality scores, nutrient intake, and metabolic parameters showed no significant differences between the two groups (p ≥ 0.05). From baseline to one year, after adjustment for covariates, mean fat intake increased by 2.7% (95% confidence intervals (CI): -1.0, 6.5%) of total energy in breakfast skippers in comparison to the 1.2% decrease observed in breakfast eaters (95% CI: -3.4, 1.1%) (p = 0.02). Mean changes in other selected parameters showed no significant differences between breakfast skippers and eaters (p > 0.05). This study did not support the hypothesis that skipping breakfast has impact on body weight, nutrient intakes, and selected metabolic measures in participants with MetS.

Keywords: breakfast skipping; metabolic syndrome; nutrient intake; weight loss.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Body Weight*
  • Breakfast*
  • Diet Records
  • Diet*
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Folic Acid / administration & dosage
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Recall
  • Metabolic Syndrome / metabolism*
  • Middle Aged
  • Niacin / administration & dosage
  • Nutrition Assessment
  • Obesity
  • Thiamine / administration & dosage
  • Vitamin B Complex / administration & dosage*
  • Young Adult


  • Dietary Fats
  • Vitamin B Complex
  • Niacin
  • Folic Acid
  • Thiamine