Fructose Intake, Serum Uric Acid, and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Critical Review

Nutrients. 2017 Apr 18;9(4):395. doi: 10.3390/nu9040395.


There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA), which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. It is probably also an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, and cognitive decline. These relationships have been observed for high serum UA levels (>5.5 mg/dL in women and >6 mg/dL in men), but also for normal to high serum UA levels (5-6 mg/dL). In this regard, blood UA levels are much higher in industrialized countries than in the rest of the world. Xanthine-oxidase inhibitors can reduce UA and seem to minimize its negative effects on vascular health. Other dietary and pathophysiological factors are also related to UA production. However, the role of fructose-derived UA in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders has not yet been fully clarified. Here, we critically review recent research on the biochemistry of UA production, the relationship between fructose intake and UA production, and how this relationship is linked to cardiometabolic disorders.

Keywords: cardiometabolic disorders; epidemiology; fructose; pathophysiology; uric acid; xanthine oxidase.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Diet*
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Fructose / administration & dosage
  • Fructose / adverse effects
  • Fructose / blood*
  • Humans
  • Hyperuricemia / blood*
  • Hyperuricemia / etiology
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / blood
  • Metabolic Syndrome / etiology
  • Uric Acid / blood*


  • Uric Acid
  • Fructose