Mismatches arise during recombination, as errors of DNA replication, and from deamination of 5-methylcytosine to thymine. We determined the efficiency and specificity of mismatch correction in simian cells. Analysis of plaques, obtained after transfection with SV40 DNA molecules harboring a single mispair in a defined orientation within the intron of the large T antigen gene, revealed that all types of base/base mispairs were corrected, albeit with different efficiencies and specificities. Heterogeneous mispairs G/T, A/C, C/T, and A/G, corrected with 96%, 78%, 72%, and 39% efficiencies, respectively, tended to be corrected to G/C. Homogeneous mispairs G/C, C/C, A/A, and T/T were corrected with 92%, 66%, 58%, and 39% efficiencies, respectively, and repair bias was influenced by mismatch flanking sequences.