Facial Alveolar Bone Width at the First and Second Maxillary Premolars in Healthy Patients: A Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study

J Oral Implantol. 2017 Aug;43(4):261-265. doi: 10.1563/aaid-joi-D-16-00195. Epub 2017 Apr 19.


The purpose of this study was to analyze the thickness of the facial alveolar bone at the first and second maxillary premolars and determinate the percentage of premolars that reached 2 mm in width. A retrospective study was performed, analyzing cone beam computed tomography scans from the database of the Oral Surgery Unit of the University of Valencia. Patients with periodontal disease, orthodontic treatment, absence among the first maxillary molars, premolars with endodontic treatment, or prosthetic restorations were excluded. The facial alveolar bone width was measured at 1, 2, 3, and 5 mm apical to the vestibular bone peak. A total of 44 patients were included in the study, with 72 first premolars and 72 second premolars analyzed. A descriptive analysis was performed and the normal means were assessed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The average width of the facial alveolar bone at first and second maxillary premolars was respectively: 1.41 ± 0.50 and 1.72 ± 0.56 at 1 mm, 1.68 ± 0.72 and 2.23 ± 0.66 at 2 mm, 1.71 ± 0.89 and 2.43 ± 0.82 at 3 mm, 1.44 ± 1.00 and 2.31 ± 1.06 at 5 mm from the vestibular bone peak. The facial alveolar bone width at the second maxillary premolars was greater than at the first maxillary premolars at all points measured. This information should be taken in account when planning immediate implants. Further studies are needed to analyze bone resorption at maxillary premolars to better understand facial alveolar bone width influence in implant treatment.

Keywords: CBCT; alveolar crest; buccal bone; facial bone thickness; premolars.

MeSH terms

  • Alveolar Process / anatomy & histology*
  • Alveolar Process / diagnostic imaging*
  • Bicuspid
  • Cone-Beam Computed Tomography*
  • Humans
  • Maxilla / anatomy & histology*
  • Maxilla / diagnostic imaging*
  • Retrospective Studies